The Marketplace Business Model – A Complete Guide (2022)

Amazon, eBay, Airbnb, or Uber are just a few of many companies operating as an online marketplace. Customers love them for their abundance of choice and shopping convenience.

What you may not know is that these examples (as well as many other marketplaces) have become some of the biggest and most valuable companies in the world.

This article will shed some light into what constitutes an online marketplace, the different types, pros and cons, as well as how to track their success.

Online Marketplace Definition

Online marketplaces connect buyers and sellers on a proprietary and centralized platform. Oftentimes, the marketplace operator does not hold any type of inventory, but helps the buyers and sellers to facilitate a transaction.

His or her duties may include tasks such as handling logistics or facilitating the payment. Sellers can then focus on their core competency, that is providing customers with the most relevant products and services.

Marketplacescome in many shapes or forms, but are often separated between two categories:horizontal or vertical.

Horizontal marketplaces offer products across differentcategories with a similar level of service. For instance, customers can buyproducts on eBay ranging from clothing to electronics.

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On theother hand, vertical marketplaces focuson one product category, but offers many services attached to it. For instance,rare sneaker marketplace StockX handlesaspects such as authentication and quality checks of the product, paymentprocess, or the transportation. It allows them to serve as a trusted source forinterested customers.

The Chicken And Egg Problem Of Marketplaces

Marketplaces are built on the premise of buyers and sellers transacting with each other. But when you start, you have none of those. So how do you convince sellers to join a platform without buyers and vice versa?

This problem is referred to as the chicken and egg problem of online marketplaces. Similar to the debate of whether the chicken or egg came first, marketplace enthusiasts face the challenge of figuring out which side to build first.

The moresellers you can attract, the greater value you can provide to your customers.Higher value leads to more buyers, which in turn increase the value forsellers.

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So whether you attract buyers or sellers first (or even simultaneously), there’s a few tactics you can employ in order to make your marketplace more attractive.

Tactics To Attract Buyers

Monetary incentives. You can give customers rewards forjoining or making purchases on your platform. For instance, a sign-up comeswith a 10$ gift card or 10 percent discount on baskets above a certainthreshold.

Act as producer. Some marketplaces such as Lazada have begun their marketplace journey by selling their own products first and only then attracting sellers. That way you can make sure to give customers the best buying experience. Supplier can then join a platform with a proven and active customer base.

Have an appealing mission. Other marketplaces have started with a great market-oriented mission to solve a pressing problem. The bigger your customer pain is, the easier it will be for you to attract customers.

For instance, Uber and Lyft solved many of the problems plaguing the taxi experience. These ranged from delayed cabs to dangerous and hostile drivers. These businesses created a safer and more convenient way of booking a ride, and as such had customers sign up immediately. Hence, Lyft’s mission is to “improve people’s lives with the world’s best transportation.

Tactics To Attract Sellers

Make it simple. The easier it is for a merchant to sell on yourplatform, the likelier are they going to figure out this process and startselling. Said convenience also decreases the cost and time spend for setting upa shop, which in turn encourages more people to sell.

Seller programs. Create dedicated seller programs (e.g. through onlinecourses or assigned key account managers) to show sellers the possibilities ofyour platform. The more people are educated about your product, the likelierare they engaging with it.

Marketplace Business Model Examples

Marketplacescome in many shapes and forms. While most people probably think of online e-commercecompanies such as Amazon or eBay, it certainly isn’t the only area and industryof application.

These arethe five different types of marketplaceswe see nowadays:

  1. Commission Model
  2. Subscription Model
  3. Freemium Model
  4. Listing Model
  5. Featured Ad Placement

Commission Model

Probably the most widespread form of marketplace approaches in which a commission is charged on each successful transaction. The platform operator then imposes either a fixed or variable fee on the product or service being transacted.

The operator of the platform normally handles the payment and logistics aspects of it while sellers focus on providing high-quality products or services. A key aspect of this model is that anyone (both buyers and sellers) can join the platform for free. The marketplace operator then benefits from all the value creation occurring on the platform.

Examples include companies such as Amazon, eBay, Etsy, or Airbnb. All of these companies charge a commission per transaction and have sellers offering various products on their platform.

Subscription Model

In the subscription revenue model, either or both buyers and sellers are charged a reoccurring fee to access the marketplace. The selling point for customers is that they gain access to a great experience or can simply save money. Sellers, on the other hand, can acquire customers that are likelier to spend money.

The biggest challenge in charging a reoccurring subscription is that the platform has to become valuable enough so that both customers and sellers gain enough benefits from using it. You’d need enough users to convince sellers to pay. And potential customers won’t sign up if they don’t see immediate benefits by joining you.

One example of a successful marketplace isLinkedIn’s B2B solutions. Here, recruiting companies pay a monthly fee to beable to access the platform and get in contact with potential employees. Conversely,customers (in that case employees) can also gain access to LinkedIn’s premiumsubscription. It allows them to directly get in contact with others or accessits learning platform for free.

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Freemium Model

Within the freemium model, the marketplace can be used free of charge for both buyers and sellers. Monetization occurs by offering additional features, premium subscriptions, or by cross-selling other services.

The thinking behind this model is that your free platform gets the users hooked, which doesn’t leave him or her a choice but to buy your premium features. The challenge is to find the right balance between your free and premium features, so that people don’t leave you immediately.

A great example is stock photo provider Unsplash. Photos are offered by the sellerswhile users can access a subset of them for free. If they want to have completeaccess to all available stock images, they pay a monthly subscription fee orcompensate the photographer directly.

Listing Model

In thelisting model, sellers are charged for every offer they upload on the platform.This model is utilized when sellers list high-ticket items such as cars orhouses. Since resources are scarce, sellers profit from having more of themlisted.

Furthermore,the purchasing transaction oftentimes does not occur on the platform, but aftermeeting with the seller and seeing the listed object. Therefore, listingmarketplace normally don’t facilitate the transaction (in terms of paymentprocessing) due to the complexity of the item listed.

The biggestselling point of listing marketplaces is the fact that they drive a lot oftraffic to the platform, and as such, allow providers to gain more visibilityon their listings.

One of thechallenges of this model is to price the listing fee accordingly. If it is tohigh, sellers will stay away from listing on the platform.

Furthermore,these sites have to be able to drive high volumes of traffic to justify theirlisting fees. Therefore, they are often at the mercy of Google’s algorithm toshow them on top for any given search query.

Examples of this business model include websites such or

Featured Ad Placement

Featuredads are oftentimes part of other marketplaces such as the commission or listingmodels. In this scenario, a seller can opt in to pay an additional fee to havetheir listing displayed before others.

Again, themain challenge is to drive enough visitors to the site so that sellers arewilling to pay for these ads.

One example of a company utilizing this is the classifieds division of eBay. Listing and selling on their platform is free, but users pay a flat fee if they want their offering to be displayed first.

Marketplace Business Model – Pros and Cons

Marketplacemodels are very complex to build and operate, but once scale is achieved, cancreate many benefits for their operator.

Thefollowing chapter lists the many pros and cons of operating an onlinemarketplace.

Marketplace Business Model Advantages

Network effects. Once there are enough buyers and sellers on theplatform, the marketplace can grow through the strength of its own network.Whether it’s buyers recommending the platform to their friends or usersproviding engaging feedback – if your platform is engaging and beneficial tothe intended customer demographic, new users will come in automatically.

Defensibility. Once the network is built, users will most likely stick to the platform. If competitors want to overtake you, they’d not only need a better product and brand, but also build a similar sized network. This is both very costly and time consuming. As such, established marketplaces are hard to dethrone from their premier position.

Just take Craigslist, for instance. Even after over 20 years of being in business, it has not bothered with updating its user interface nor adding the necessary safety measures for customers to transact on the platform. This is because the nodes on its network are so strong that encourages people to come back despite a presumably poor user experience as well as risks of being mugged or even killed.

High user engagement. Marketplaces focusing on repeatedpurchases (e.g. Poshmark) oftentimes havehigh engaging users. As the marketplace facilitates communication anddiscovery, customers may get intrigued to find the best deals or simply browsethe stores. On the other hand, sellers want to get ahead of their competition andtherefore study the marketplace extensively.

High margins. If a marketplace becomes the dominant player inits segment (and thus has to spend less on marketing), the profit margins oneach transactions can become very high. When buyers get to know you as thego-to destination for their shopping needs, your spend to motivate themshopping greatly decreases.

Pricing monopoly. While ethically questionable, dominant marketplaces have the ability to dictate the commissions and fees they charge. Since being on the platform is so lucrative for sellers, they are often charged more over time. If there is no comparable marketplace around, sellers often have to swallow those rate increases.

Data creation. Marketplaces generate a lot of (consumer) data,which operators can use to either sell or take advantage off by setting foot ina new industry. Amazon, for instance, analyzes its sellers data and can then sellit under its own branded Amazon Basic brand. Oftentimes, sellers are leftbehind as the company’s own products are favored.

Marketplace Business Model Disadvantages

High set up cost. Building the necessary technology stack,advertising to attract buyers and suppliers, and hiring the right employees arejust some of the costly activities involved in setting up a marketplace. It maytake a substantial amount of investment and time to build up a sizeable revenueside.

Dependence on other platforms. Some marketplaces are characterizedby fewer purchase frequency (e.g. house or car listings), thus having a hardertime to build a brand. They therefore you to keep advertising on platforms suchas Google or Facebook to be found by customers. The few touchpoints make it alot harder to build a brand through repeated interactions.

Many competitors. Because the marketplace model can be financiallylucrative, competition is often very intense. While setting up a marketplacemay be costly, more and more investorsare willing to pour in the financial resources to help startups compete.

Varying seller quality. Sellers and the quality of products or services they offer may vary greatly. This may become especially problematic when sellers are also responsible for aspects such as delivery. Marketplace operators have to account for that and invest in their seller side. That involves duties such as authenticating products and sellers or building a logistics network to facilitate transportation.

Network pollution. Network pollution refers to marketplace participants, whether it’s buyers or sellers, who try to game the system for their own gain. For example, on fashion marketplace Depop, sellers would offer fake products. On cashback platform ShopBack, buyers have repeatedly made ‘fake’ purchases (which they would cancel later on) in hopes of pocketing those rewards.

As such, some marketplaces have to invest millions of dollars in vetting their content or authenticating products and services. One of the most prominent examples is the previously mentioned StockX, which employs its own team of trained authenticators. Other means of vetting include features like user reviews or working directly together with sellers.

Marketplace Metrics & KPIs

Marketplacescome in many shapes and forms. Companies may focus on other businesses (B2B) orprivate consumers (B2C), operate locallyor globally and are integrated either horizontally or vertically.

So how doyou as a founder know if you’re on the right? One part of the solution istracking a few key metrics to assess your growth. These include:

  1. Gross Merchandise Value (GMV)
  2. Rake (Take Rate)
  3. Net Revenue
  4. Average Order Value (AOV)
  5. Gross & Contribution Margin
  6. Liquidity
  7. Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC)
  8. Repeat Purchase Rate (RPR)
  9. Net Promoter Score (NPS)

Gross Merchandise Value

GMV givesyou the total of the goods and services transacted. It is calculated bymultiplying the average value of the order by the number of sales.

GMV = Average OrderValue x Total Sales

So if yourplatform facilitates one million sales with an average value of 5 USD, thenyour GMV is $5 million. If you want to get a more accurate representation ofyour GMV, you have to calculate it after subtracting cancelations and returns. Youtherefore calculate based on delivered goods rather than bookings.

Rake (Take Rate)

The Take Rate is the metric that compliments GMV and helps us understand how healthy the marketplace operates. As the name indicates, the take rate shows how much the business takes home from every transaction.

It is therevenue from the commissions and fees (or other income streams) divided by thetotal amount of sales.

Rake = (Commission +Fees) ÷ Total Sales

If a marketplacesells 10,000 goods in a given period and earns 500 USD in each commissions andfees, then the Take Rate is (1000 + 1000) ÷ 10,000 = 10 percent. So the businessobtains 20 percent of every transactions conducted on the platform.

Take Ratesoften vary greatly, depending on the type of goods transacted and the valueyour marketplace provides. For instance, digital freelance platform Fiverr charges 5to 20 percent on every transaction. On the other hand, eBaycharges a maximum of 12 percent on its marketplace.

Net Revenue

Net revenuerepresents the actual revenue the marketplace generates in a given period. Itis calculated by multiplying GMV with the Take Rate.

Net Revenue = GMV xTake Rate

So if westick to the results of our previous examples, we receive a net revenue of $5million x 20 percent = $1 million.

Average Order Value

Similar tonet revenue, the average order value helps us understand how much the companyearns – in this case on the transaction level. AOV results by dividing thetotal value of transactions by the amount of sales on the platform.

AOV = Total TransactionValue ÷ Total Sales

So if yousell goods worth $10 million and your total sales amount to one million, thenthe average value of a transaction is $10.

AOV helpsus to understand how competitors are performing by comparing their AOV toyours. Furthermore, we can assess how hard it will be to attract buyers to themarketplace. The higher a good or service is priced, the fewer customers arepotentially willing to spend.

Gross & Contribution Margin

The grossmargin is a company’s net revenue subtracted by the cost of selling goods(COGS). While it gives us a good indication of how profitable we are,businesses should use the contribution margin for a more detailed view.

Tocalculate the contribution margin, we not only subtract COGS, but other variablecost such as customer service, research, hiring employees and so forth. The contributionmargin is one of the best indicators to assess how profitable the marketplaceis overall.


Liquidityis what keeps the engine that is our marketplace running. It indicates howactive the marketplace is at any given moment in time. For liquidity, we lookat measures such as:

  • Amountof buyers and sellers registered on the platform
  • Numberof listings
  • Numberof purchases and returns
  • Geographicdiversity (in how many different locations we sell)

This listis not exclusive and should be adapted to the specifics of each marketplacemodel and industry.

As amarketplace business, our goal is to maximize liquidity. The more possibilitiesfor transaction we offer to our customers, the likelier they are to engage withthe product.

Customer Acquisition Cost

Our CACtells us how expensive it is for our business to acquire both buyers andsellers to the platform. It is calculated by summarizing the cost for marketingand sales and divide that by the total amount of new customers.

CAC = Sales & MarketingCosts ÷ New Customers

So if wespend $2,000 on Facebook ads and that yields us 100 new customers, our CAC is$2,000 ÷ 100 new customers = 20 $ per new customer.

Oneimportant distinction has to be made between CAC for buyers and sellers on themarketplace. Oftentimes, different marketing channels are utilized to buildthese two sides.

Your goalis to minimize CAC. The more you spend to acquire a customer or seller, themore value he or she has to generate on the platform to break even.

Repeat Purchase Rate

Acquiringnew customers is expensive. So best case, you want to sell to the ones who arealready registered on your platform.

As opposedto paying for ads, you can use more cost-effective marketing solutions such asemail or push notifications. And you can do this once the user is already inyour ecosystem.

The repeatpurchase rate gives you the percentage of your existing customer base that purchasedfor a second time. It is therefore calculated by dividing the total number ofcustomers by the number of customers you had two transactions or more.

RPR = No. Of CustomersWith > 1 Purchase ÷ Total Number Of Customers

You shoulddo that calculation on a periodic basis, i.e. for a given year or month. Let’ssay you have 50,000 customers with at least two transactions and a total of 1million buyers on the platform. Then your RPR is equal to 50,000 ÷ 1,000,000 =5 percent.

You canalso measure this rate on your supplier side, for instance how repeatedlysellers upload listings on the platform.

The higherthis percentage, the more you can spend on acquiring new customers. This isbest achieved in an industry with many repeat purchases. Examples include bookstaxi rides (e.g. Uber and Lyft). On the other hand, a platform selling usedcars would have to create a lot more revenue as purchases are very infrequent.

Net Promoter Score

Another importantmetric to measure customer satisfaction and retention is using NPS. The scoreis obtained by asking the question of “ona scale of 0 to 10, how likely are you to recommend to a friend?”.

Dependingon the score that is given to the question, three categories of people can be defined:

  • Promoters= score of 9 or 10 given
  • Passives= score of 8 or 7 given
  • Detractors= score of 0 to 7 given

NPS is thencalculated as the difference between the percentage of promoters (customers whowould recommend you) and detractors (customerswho wouldn’t recommend you).

NPS = % Promoters – %Detractors

Forinstance, if you have 35% promoters, 50% passives and 15% detractors, NPS willbe +20. A NPS score above 50 is considered excellent.

One of the important aspects of NPS is to measure it frequently to see how satisfied your customers are over time.

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