Garlic Farming - Planting, Care, Harvesting-A Complete Guide - Farming Pedia (2023)

Garlic is an essential bulb crop grown. Its scientific name is Allium sativum. It is used as a spice too. Compared to the other bulb crops, garlic has a high nutritive value. Garlic can be transformed into different forms like chilled garlic, dehydrated garlic flakes, dehydrated garlic powder, garlic oils etc.

They grow perfectly well 1200-2000m above sea level. These bulb crops are consumed by people as a spice. However, garlic originated in southern europe but it is being consumed all over the world these days. Garlic farming can be carried out in too hot or too cold weather conditions. Maintaining optimum temperature is necessary to get a healthy crop.

It is a low maintenance cash crop. You can gain amazing profits by planting and selling garlic.

The U.S is the number one importer of garlic in the whole world.

Growing Garlic at Home

Soil requirements for garlic

Firstly discussing the soil, well-drained loamy soil that is rich in humus will be most suitable for garlic cultivation. The soil should also have sufficient potash. Sandy soil or loose stool is not much preferred as it can degrade the quality of the garlic and the difference in weight of the garlic bulbs could also be seen.

In addition when heavy soil is used for garlic production, then during the harvesting period the bulbs break and become badly discolored. pH range of 5-7 pH is suitable for proper growth and yield.


Garlic can be grown in a wide range of climatic conditions however the extreme conditions are intolerable. A moderate temperature whether hot or cold is suitable for garlic Farming.

Bulb formation will be affected in extremely hot conditions. Garlic needs some cool and moist conditions for growth. Bulb formation occurs when the weather’s hot and days are long. 25-30°C is the most suitable temperature for bulb formation.

Diffrent Varieties of Garlic:

Some varieties of garlic like agrifound Parvati, agrifound Parvati 2, agrifound white, yamuna safed, yamuna safed 2, yamuna safed 3, GG-4, Ooty 1 etc. are very productive and disease resistant. Some other varieties are G-41, bhima omkar , bhilma purple, pant lohit etc.

There are basically two main varieties of garlic that are hardneck and softneck.

(Video) Garlic Farming And Harvesting Machine - Modern Garlic Farming Agriculture Technology ▶24

1. Hardneck:

This variety of garlic is very cold and should not be grown in winters. In this flower stems are produced that have to be cut off so that the bulbs can reach their maximum potential. However these flowers or scapes are edible mainly in summers in salads or by adding in fries.

This variety has one ring of the clove around it unlike the other variety. This variety cannot be stored for a very long time as other varieties. It’s taste is also lighter than softneck garlic. For example Korean red ,duganski, Siberian, music, chesnok red, German red, and Spanish Rosa. etc.

2. Softneck:

Similar to it’s name, this variety remains soft after harvesting. This variety is usually a warm climate variety. Softneck garlics have a strong and intense flavor. This variety has bigger bulbs. For example silverskin, inchelium red, California Early and California late.

Next comes the great headed and the wit and wisdom

  • Great headed:

This garlic doesn’t taste much like garlic. It tastes more like the onion than the basic garlic. Bus and cloves are large in size.

  • Wit and wisdom:

This variety of garlic has healing properties.


Propagation for garlic crop is carried out by planting cloves or aerial bulbils. Most of the time aerial bulbils are preferred over cloves as they are very productive.

Garlic planting:

For planting garlic, the land has to be thoroughly prepared by ploughing repeatedly. After that 10-20 tonnes of well-decomposed FYM should be added per hectare.

Garlic sowing can be done by three following methods :

1. Dibbling

2. Furrow planting

(Video) How to Plant Garlic From Start to Finish

3. Broadcasting

When the garlic is planted at small gaps, then the size of the individual garlic decreases however the overall yield increases. Organic manure is also very helpful in good crop production. Hence 20 tonnes of well-decomposed FYM per hectare during field preparation.

Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium can also be added in the field. Nitrogen has to be given in two doses. The first dose has to be given during plantation and the other one after 30 days of plantation. 10 kg of Borax has to be added per hectare for improved yield and enlarged bulb size.

Climatic conditions for garlic cultivation:

A combination of different climatic conditions is necessary for cultivation of garlic crops. It’s basic need is a cool and moist climate for development of bulbs and proper vegetative growth.

However, a warm climate is much suitable for maturation. But garlic cannot tolerate extreme weather conditions. Exposing the crop to low temperature for a long time can decrease the yield of the crop.


Garlic crops need to be moist because of the special root development. Firstly the field has to be irrigated lightly before plantation. In garlic farming, different types of irrigation systems are used for example drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation system and the furrow method.

A few years back it was reported that drip irrigation method has a significant effect on crop productivity. In the drip irrigation system the pipelines are laid throughout the field and crops are irrigated drop by drop. In this the wastage of water is very very less. Even evaporation is also less in this system as compared to the sprinkler system.

Although it also has some disadvantages like the watering tapes has to be replaced within 1-3 years. The droppers may also get contaminated.

Sprinkler system: in this method the water is sprinkled all over the field like rain. However this method has some disadvantages too. This method is quite expensive. In this method a lot of water is wasted and a lot of energy is also required to create the water pressure. It may have a negative impact on the cover sheet for example this may cause any disease.

Inside dirt: It is also called an underground drip irrigation system. In this the system for irrigation purposes need not be changed for years. This system doesn’t obstruct the tillage. It doesn’t require yearly expansion. In this system the water is delivered directly to the roots.

Disadvantages of inside dirt drip irrigation system: It’s difficult to diagnose the malfunctioning as to check one part the whole system has to be checked which is a quite difficult job. It also needs high maintenance. A care system also has to be arranged so that the roots don’t grow inside the tubes or pipes. This system has a higher initial cost as compared to a simple drip irrigation system.

(Video) How to Grow Garlic | Simple Steps for HUGE Yields

These are the few methods of irrigation. In the initial stages, irrigation has to be done every 3rd day. But afterward, the crop can be irrigated once in 15 days. These intervals go on increasing as the crop reaches its maturity stages. When the crop is ready to harvest, the irrigation needs to be stopped.

As we know that garlic being small in size is planted very close to each other so manual weeding could be a very difficult job and expensive too. And not doing this can cause a lot of damage to the crop.

So the only option left to treat weeds is a chemical method, herbicides or weedicides have to be used to vanish off the weeds. Some examples of these weeds are linuron, pendimethalin, and tribunil, etc.

When is Garlic Ready to Harvest:

After 130-150 days of plantation the garlic crop is ready to harvest but it also depends on the soil type, climate conditions etc. When the upper part of the crops becomes yellow and starts drying and bending. It should not be harvested too early as it results in poor quality of garlic.

Hence before digging up the whole crop, one should take out the same samples to check out the quality of the crop and also whether it’s ready for harvesting or not.

So slightly pull up one or two bulbs but one must keep in mind that digging should not be started until the top is completely Yellow. When the garlic head is divided into plump cloves and when the bulbs have thick, dry and papery covering the garlic is ready to harvest.

Garlic Farming - Planting, Care, Harvesting-A Complete Guide - Farming Pedia (1)

Timing is also very important in this process as if the harvesting is done early, the covering of the bulb would be thin and may Get damaged. And on the other hand, if harvesting is done late, the garlic along with it’s skin can split up and may become prone to diseases.

Harvesting has to be done very carefully as directly pulling the garlic out can also damage it hence it has to be first dug up very carefully and then carefully brush the garlic to remove the soil. Then hang them upside down for good air circulation.


Garlic is prone to some diseases like basal rot( Fusarium culmorum ), white rot ( sclerotium cepivorum) Downy mildew (Peronospora destructor), Botrytis Rot (Botrytis porri), and Penicillium Decay (Penicillium hirsutum).

(Video) Growing Garlic from Planting to Harvest

Control: use disease free seeds, avoid overcrowding, one should dispose of the infected part properly, also make use of appropriate fungicides, using well drained soil can also prevent these diseases. Regular weeding should be carried out.

Seeds should be treated with warm water before sowing to avoid infections. Virus-free cloves should be planted. Soil beds should be prepared properly. These are some methods to control these diseases.

How to store garlic:

Mainly garlic has to be stored in a well ventilated room. As the garlics have to be hung from the leaves so a proper support should be there in room for hanging the garlics. Cured Garlics can be stored for maximum 8 months at normal temperature.

However, before storing the garlic it should be properly cleaned and trimmed. The outer papery layer has not to be removed but the dirtiest wrappers can be separated. This garlic has to be stored in cool, dry, and dark places.

The temperature for storage should be 4°C or 40°F . In this way these can be stored for several months. It should not be stored in a moist place or refrigerator. The flavor of the bulbs enhance as it dries up.

If the crop is stored properly, it can last throughout the season. If you have to cultivate the crop next year again, then save some of the largest pieces to plant them again.

Plant protection:

Thrips can cause dropping of leaves and degrade the quality of garlic and even the storage quality too. A chemical named methyl demeton 25EC 1 ml per litre can check on thrips.

How profitable is garlic farming:

One can get an average yield of 32-48 quintals per acre of land.

If one has to grow garlic on a commercial scale then this article may help you to know more about this. Firstly one has to get the good quality seeds according to the demand and quality. For cultivation of garlic land has to be prepared, ploughing has to be done where again some investment would be required for machinery for land preparation.

Plantation is the next step that can be done by different methods like dibbling, furrow planting, or broadcasting and each method has different costs. Then some Intercultural operations have to be carried out like weeding and earthing up etc where again some money has to be applied.

Hereby we can say that at each step some investment is required like every other crop and it’s worth it as one earn a very good profit from this crop

(Video) How to Grow Garlic - COMPLETE GUIDE (Planting to Harvest)


Garlic is mainly used as a food or spice . It can also be used as a medicinal herb or oil. It has a unique taste and its own different aroma. It adds a very different flavor to food and makes it more delicious as demanding.

Beside food it is helpful in many of the medical conditions and provides great refeif. According to some preclinical studies, garlic is said to have some compounds that are helpful in cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Garlic has some outstanding roles in human health as well as medicines and is also a very profitable crop.

Tags farming guide, garlic farming


How long does garlic take to grow from planting to harvest? ›

Garlic is ready to harvest around seven to eight months after being planted, says Foxx. "Some signs include the green leaves turning brown and the flower stems will get soft," she says.

Is there money in garlic farming? ›

Yes, growing garlic can absolutely be profitable! In just the United States, 300 million tons of garlic are consumed every year—so you know there's a high demand! Growing garlic is a time investment, however, as it takes several months to grow.

What month do you harvest garlic? ›

It's a long-maturing crop, taking eight to nine months from seed garlic (plantable cloves) to final harvest. Garlic is also one of those things where timing is everything, and the harvest period can span from May to August, depending on the date of planting, the weather conditions, and the type of garlic grown.

Should you water garlic before harvesting? ›

Dry soil conditions is a natural signal to garlic that it's growth and bulb filling period is coming to a close. This means that you should stop watering your garlic crop one to two weeks before harvesting the bulbs.

What is the best fertilizer for garlic? ›

Fertilize garlic in the early spring by side dressing or broadcasting with blood meal, pelleted chicken manure or a synthetic source of nitrogen. Just before the bulbs begin to swell in response to lengthening daylight (usually early May), fertilize lightly one more time.

Do you dry garlic after harvesting? ›

After garlic is harvested it needs to be cured. In curing the energy from the leaves goes into the bulbs as they dry. Remove any chunks of dirt from the roots, being careful not to bruise the garlic. Leave the roots on as they have a moderating effect on the drying rate.

Do you hang garlic after harvesting? ›

Tie the top of the stalks with string in bundles of five to ten and hang them bulb down in a dark, dry and well-ventilated place for about three weeks.

Does it take 2 years to grow garlic? ›

How long does it take garlic to grow? On average, you'll be waiting about nine months from seed to harvest. The good news: once you get these bulbs in the ground, there's little to do but wait.

Can you leave garlic in the ground for 2 years? ›

Growing garlic as a perennial means less maintenance, year-round harvests and never buying seed garlic again. Growing garlic as a perennial is pretty simple. Just plant garlic as you normally would in the fall, and then ignore it for a few years.

How many inches apart to plant garlic? ›

Garlic is ideally planted with six inches between cloves, both in and between rows. We give a little more space, sowing with eight-inch centers, because we want to limit competition between plants both above and below the ground.

How much does it cost to plant 1 acre of garlic? ›

For garlic, the between-row spacing should be 12 to 18 inches. The in-row spacing should be 2 to 3 inches for regular garlic and 3 to 4 inches for elephant garlic. Between 800 and 2,000 pounds of garlic or elephant garlic cloves will be required to plant an acre.

How much garlic do I need to grow to make a profit? ›

So let's do the math. If you'd like to make $40,000, and you're selling your garlic for $15 a pound, then you need enough room to produce around 2700 pounds of garlic. That means you need about a tenth of an acre, or 5,000 square feet, for your garlic growing area.

What is the #1 garlic producing state? ›

In the United States, the majority of fresh and processing garlic production and acreage is concentrated in California.

How many times can you harvest garlic? ›

I think one of the best things about growing garlic is you get two harvests! But a key thing to note if you're new to growing it, is when to harvest garlic—and those delicious garlic scapes that come sooner in the season. I usually spread my garlic crop out over a couple of my raised beds.

How often do you need to water garlic? ›

Water thoroughly after planting, and regularly thereafter—about once a week. There is no need to water fall-planted garlic over the dormant winter months if there is regular rain/snowfall.

How do you store garlic long term? ›

Just store in a cool (60 to 65 degrees), dimly lit place with air circulation. You don't want to put your garlic in an airtight container or it will begin to rot. Plastic bags are no good either—they'll trap moisture, which makes garlic rot faster. Reach for mesh bags or paper wrappers, instead.

What happens if you leave garlic in ground too long? ›

If left in the ground too long, the over-mature bulbs can split open, leaving them susceptible to molds and dehydration. Perhaps somewhere there are soils loose and loamy enough to enable garlic to be pulled out of the ground by the tops without tearing or breaking any stems.

Why not wash garlic after harvesting? ›

Bulbs need several layers of intact skin to store well. Don't wash the bulbs, no matter how dirty. They need to dry, not get wetter. Dirt will dry and drop off.

Why do you soak garlic cloves before planting? ›

Why we soak our garlic before planting. The reasons why we recommend a fertilization soak of garlic seed: Reduce the transmission of microorganisms that naturally live in garlic.

Are coffee grounds good for garlic? ›

Coffee grounds are a good source of nitrogen, which is an important nutrient for garlic. They also help to improve soil drainage and acidity, which can create a more favorable environment for garlic growth.

What is the best soil additive for garlic? ›

Soil pH and fertility

Garlic grows best in well-drained, moisture-retentive soil with pH between 6.0 and 7.0. Improve your soil's organic matter content by adding well-rotted manure or compost in spring or fall. Do not use fresh manure as it may contain harmful bacteria and may increase weed problems.

Do garlic plants like Epsom salt? ›

Scattering a couple of tablespoons of Epsom salts over each square metre of planting bed can up the strength of your garlic. This is because garlic produces its flavour compounds using the sulphur it sucks up from the soil.

Why wait after cutting garlic? ›

Cutting a garlic clove breaks its cells and releases stored enzymes that react with oxygen. That triggers healthy sulfide compounds, such as allicin, to form. Letting the chopped garlic stand for 10 to 15 minutes before cooking allows the compounds to fully develop before heat inactivates the enzymes.

Should you dry garlic in the sun? ›

Drying. Once the garlic has been removed from the field, it should be brought to a well-ventilated area that is sheltered from rain and direct sun. The tops and roots can be cut as soon as they have been brought inside and can be placed into bulb crates or laid out on tables with good air circulation.

What happens if I peel garlic before planting? ›

Peeling the cloves before planting them could result in damage to the cloves. The peel also protects the clove from damage when it remains intact, so leave it on whenever possible.

Where do you dry garlic after harvesting? ›

Rapid curing can be achieved by placing bulbs roots up on 1” wire mesh in a hoophouse covered with a shade cloth, and with the sides and ends open. A well-ventilated barn will also work, but be sure that bulbs are hung with adequate air circulation or on open racks up off the floor. Curing takes 10-14 days.

What can you plant next to garlic? ›

When planting your garlic, it's worth noting that it companions well with the following plants:
  • Tomatoes.
  • Fruit trees.
  • Potatoes.
  • Cabbages.
  • Broccoli.
  • Cauliflower.
  • Kale.
  • Carrots.

Can you grow garlic in the same spot every year? ›

To avoid disease problems, don't plant garlic in the same spot two years running. Prepare several shallow furrows in the soil that are 6 inches apart.

What happens if you don't cut garlic scapes? ›

The scape, if left on the plant, will form a flower and then seed (you can eat those tiny seeds! using a garlic press is the best way to do that!). By cutting off the scape you are asking the plant to send all of it's energy in to increasing the bulb size, rather than in putting energy toward flowers and seed.

What is the lifespan of garlic? ›

Whole garlic bulbs will last 3 to 6 months when properly stored away from heat and humidity. Keep the papery layers on the bulbs intact; they help prevent moisture from reaching the cloves.

Does garlic come back year after year? ›

An ancient bulbous vegetable, it grows from a single clove that multiplies in the ground. Most people grow it as an annual, but if you harvest only the big plants and leave behind the small ones, you'll have a perennial garlic that regrows every year. Close relatives include onions, shallots, and leeks.

At what temperature does garlic stop growing? ›

When properly planted, garlic can withstand winter lows of -30°F. If planted too early, too much tender top growth happens before winter. If planted too late, there will be inadequate root growth before the winter, and a lower survival rate as well as smaller bulbs. Store seed garlic at 50-60°F.

Which garlic has the longest shelf life? ›

Softneck garlic features:

Softnecks are best for warmer climates as they're not generally as hardy. Softnect garlic varieties store very well, making them an ideal fit for mass production. The heads will last for nine to twelve months under ideal storage conditions (more on this below).

How late can I plant garlic? ›

Garlic is a bulb in the Allium family, which includes onions, chives and leeks. Like many spring flowering bulbs, garlic is planted in the fall. For best results, garlic should be planted in late September to mid-October.

How many garlic plants can you get from one bulb? ›

One bulb of garlic when broken into cloves and planted can reap 10-20 bulbs harvested. Not only for keen gardeners with lots of garden space, garlic can be easily planted in a pot on a patio or even a doorstep! 1. Buy a good quality garlic bulb from a reliable source.

What is the most expensive garlic? ›

Creole garlic is considered to be the most expensive and rarest of the all the garlic varieties. Although they were formerly thought to be a sub-group of silverskin garlic, modern DNA studies show them in a separate class by themselves.

What equipment is needed for garlic farming? ›

Splitters, planters, harvesters, cleaners, graders, brushers and peelers.

What is the highest garlic yield per acre? ›

Yields for garlic can vary tremendously. Low yields in the Fall River Valley and Big Valley can be 8,000 pounds per acre or less. High yields can be over 15,000 pounds per acre. Average yields will be in the 10,000 to 12,000 pound per acre range depending on clone, management and environmental conditions.

How much profit from 1 acre of garlic? ›

What is this? So how much is an acre of garlic worth? Some growers make up to 80,000 dollars (65,520 pounds) per acre of garlic every year. Garlic is also a very hearty crop, meaning your investment in growing it is likely to pay off.

How much garlic can you get from an acre? ›

One acre of land depending on your crop management yields 4,000-5,000kgs of garlic. Select a sunny spot to plant the garlic. Garlic likes fertile, well-drained soil with a pH of 6.5 to 7. Add compost manure to improve soil fertility.

What is the best garlic in the world? ›

Sulmona Red Garlic - probably the best garlic in the whole wide world.

What country consumes most garlic? ›

1) Which country consumes the most garlic, per person/capita, per year? (ANSWER: c. China. Some Chinese eat up to 12 cloves a day to stay youthful, strong and healthy.

How long do you hang garlic to dry? ›

Tie the top of the stalks with string in bundles of five to ten and hang them bulb down in a dark, dry and well-ventilated place for about three weeks.

How long to dry garlic after harvest? ›

Curing takes 10-14 days. Stems may be cut before or after curing. Curing is complete when the outer skins are dry and crispy, the neck is constricted, and the center of the cut stem is hard. Storage.

Do you wash garlic after harvesting? ›

Bulbs need several layers of intact skin to store well. Don't wash the bulbs, no matter how dirty. They need to dry, not get wetter. Dirt will dry and drop off.

Do you dry garlic in the sun or shade? ›

The key to proper curing is providing good air circulation between the bulbs. Don't spread them out in the sun. Garlic is susceptible to sunburn and can literally cook under the sun, which deteriorates flavor. So you want to minimize the amount of direct sunlight it gets during the curing process.

What happens if you wait too long to harvest garlic? ›

Too soon, and the bulbs will be undersized, with a thin outer covering; too late, and the bulbs will have started to break open. Garlic that is harvested too late won't keep well. Pay attention to your garlic patch as the plants start to turn brown.

Should you trim garlic leaves? ›

By cutting off the scape you are asking the plant to send all of it's energy in to increasing the bulb size, rather than in putting energy toward flowers and seed. Since the bulb is what we eat, we recommend cutting the scape.

Can you use garlic harvested too early? ›

What if I pull my garlic too early? Garlic that is harvested too early will be small, and the bulbs won't be developed. The garlic will still be edible, but you won't get nearly as much garlic out of it.


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