Advertising & Promotion. An Integrated Marketing Communications Approach (2022)


Nielsen, M. (2012), "Advertising & Promotion. An Integrated Marketing Communications Approach", Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol. 17 No. 3.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2012, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Advertising & Promotion. An Integrated Marketing Communications Approach

Advertising & Promotion. An Integrated Marketing CommunicationsApproach

Article Type: Book review From: CorporateCommunications: An International Journal, Volume 17, Issue 3

C. Hackley,Sage,London,2010,360 pp.,ISBN: 1849201463


This book is a well-written and very useful textbook for students ofadvertising. The book is “written with student needs in mind” (p. 1),and students will definitely get value for money. It offers profound insightsinto the advertising business from a managerial and a cultural and socialperspective, and with its examples, inserts, chapter review questions, casestudies and specific case study questions and glossary and website, it should bean excellent textbook for teachers of the subject as well, as they actually havean almost entire semester plan at their hands.

(Video) What is Integrated Marketing Communications Strategy? integrated marketing communications explained

The book is on advertising and promotion, and it should be added that italmost exclusively covers advertising and promotion for for-profit,business-to-consumer companies, and that it to a high degree describes theadvertising process seen from the advertising agency perspective. That is mostuseful for marketing managers to be, since they will be buying advertising fromthe agencies, and for that purpose, knowing how advertising agencies think andwork is obviously a great advantage – and much needed, too (cf. Burrackand Nöcker, 2008, pp. 9-10).

According to the preface, in the 2nd edition chapters 2 and 5 have been“substantially re-written”, chapter 1 has been “re-written”,chapters 3 and 6 have been “re-titled”, chapters 7, 8, and 9 havebeen “updated and restructured” and chapter 10 “becomes ‘Integratinge-Marketing and Advertising’”. If you disregard the quantitativeextension and the general update, the main difference between Hackley (2005) andHackley (2010) seems to be the angle: Where the 1st edition focused more onbranding, the 2nd edition devotes more attention to the embeddedness ofadvertising and promotion in Integrated Marketing Communications.


The book is divided into ten chapters. Each chapter is preceded by a chapteroutline, and bullet points for key chapter contents. In each chapter, pictureinserts and box sections highlight specific aspects, examples or cases. At theend of each chapter, a chapter summary, review exercises, a case study includingcase questions, suggestions for further reading and references to the companionwebsite are found. At the end of the book there is a glossary and acomprehensive list of references. In other words, the way the book is structuredfollows the usual Anglo-Saxon textbook pattern. Below, I will comment further onthe qualities of that structure.


Chapter 1 introduces advertising and promotion within the framework of anIntegrated Marketing Communications approach and positions it within brandingand symbolism. This chapter also describes the challenges that advertisingagencies face in a changing global advertising environment, and it discusses theblurry definitions of advertising.

Chapter 2 presents two traditions of advertising theory. The first traditionpresented is a cognitive, information processing approach includinghierarchy-of-effects modeling which assume a cognitive-affective-conative orderof effect (such as the famous AIDA model: attention – interest –desire – action). A classic Shannon and Weaver-style “transmissionmodel of communication so prevalent in advertising theory” (p. 47) ispresented and criticized for not necessarily being “appropriate for humancommunication” (p. 37) as it was developed “to model machine and nothuman communication” (p. 42). The socio-cultural approach is then presentedas a more appropriate approach to model and to explain what is going on whenadvertising is interpreted and meaning is (re-)created by recipients ofadvertising.

Chapter 3 defines Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) and the conceptof brand, followed by the outline of an IMC plan: “Executive summary,Brand research and competition analysis, Target audience, Communicationobjectives, Advertising strategy, Creative approach, Media plan, Action plan andtactics, Budget estimates, Effectiveness” (pp. 84-85), which issubsequently elaborated. For some reason, the point “Action plan andtactics” seems to missing in this elaboration, as the Media plan (pp.88-89) is followed directly by the Budget and Effectiveness (pp. 89-90).

The theme of chapter 4 is advertising agencies, their creative work and theadvertising process. Advertising agencies are described as “culturalintermediaries” (p. 98) and the advertising process as social and culturalpractices. This chapter offers interesting insights into the world ofadvertising agencies, their industrial history, the creative staff’s way ofworking, their self-conception and their sometimes counter-productive urge towin professional awards (p. 105-106). The six stages of the creative advertisingdevelopment process are presented (pp. 120-128). Although not referred toexplicitly, these stages correspond very much with stages in the IMC plan inchapter 3, e.g. the advertising strategy (pp. 121-122/p. 87), the creative brief(pp. 122-125) with the creative approach and creative brief (pp. 87-88), andtracking campaign effectiveness (pp. 125-128) with budget and effectiveness (pp.89-90).

Chapter 5 deals with the media infrastructure for advertising, and presentsmedia agencies that are often hired by the companies to facilitate mediaplanning. Furthermore, audience segmentation is touched upon, includingdemographic, psychographic, and consumer behavior (brand communities)segmentation approaches. The strategic decision on the media mix are illustratedwith a clear bias towards intermedia comparison (comparison between mediaclasses), including media planning, and specific types of media for advertisinglike television, radio, newspapers, magazines, and outdoor, leaving intramediacomparison (comparison between media vehicles within a specific media class) abit unnoticed (cf. Sissors and Baron, 2005, p. 223).

(Video) Integrated Marketing Communication & Ad Trends

Chapter 6 is entitled “Non-Advertising Promotion in IntegratedMarketing Communication” and takes a closer look at those tools within IMCthat are not really advertising tools. Sponsorship, product placement (in TVshows and in movies), trade conferences and exhibitions, ambient, viral andguerilla marketing, corporate communication and public relations are presentedin their capacity of being a part of IMC, albeit not of the narrow definition ofadvertising and promotion.

The international dimension of advertising is the content of chapter 7.Advertising, being “inherently a cultural product” (p. 194), is facedwith the challenge of having to take into account the cultural differencesbetween different regions and nations of an increasingly global world. Theclassic distinction between standardization and localization (Levitt, 1983) isbriefly discussed. Furthermore, strategies that deal with cultural specificdifferences like transnational co-branding and country-of-origin strategies aredescribed. In addition to the cross-cultural advertising products and campaigns,also the cross-cultural advertising processes, including international agencynetwork cooperation and management, are presented.

Chapter 8 discusses ethics and regulation in advertising. Concrete examplesof (self-)regulative bodies and of legislation are given. The chapterparticularly discusses the many interfaces where advertising deeply interactswith and influences issues of public concern – like alcohol and tobaccoconsumption – the representation of women in advertising, obesity, andtargeting children with advertising. Also, philosophical explanations ofcontroversial issues in advertising are offered.

Chapter 9 gives an introduction to research in advertising. It begins with apresentation of reasons why advertising research is important, who conducts itand for who’s benefit. It turns out that advertising research is not onlyconducted to enhance effectiveness and quality of advertising, but very muchalso to politically justify the vast amounts of money that companies spend onadvertising. A brief overview of qualitative and quantitative research method isoffered.

Chapter 10 concludes the book with a presentation of e-marketing and mobilemarketing and the process of integrating those advertising and marketing toolsinto IMC.

The ten chapters are followed by a glossary, which provides short concisedefinitions of relevant terms and notions like “account planner”,“copy-testing”, or “psycho-galvanometer tests”. Thecomprehensive list of references is followed by the indispensable subject index.

4Pedagogical benefits

The review questions are very helpful in supporting the student reader inrecapitulating the main points of the chapter. There are different types, andparticularly questions where the student has to find examples of the phenomenadescribed in the text seem to me to have a high pedagogical value. The casestudies with separate questions are very illustrative, too. The glossary’sselection of lemmata seems obvious although you can always think of a couple oflemmata you would have wanted or even expected to be included in the glossary.But in any case, if not exhaustive the glossary is comprehensible and highlyrelevant.

The companion website is a very rich and useful resource for the subject andthe book. For potential buyers and users of the books, the website offersunrestricted online access to a foretaste of some of the book’s contentslike the table of contents and the glossary. For actual readers of the book, theselected articles for further reading succeed admirably in providing studentswith supplementary material. The very relevant list of links to other webresources is highly recommendable as well. Consistent with the book’sangle, the list of links also contains links to the advertising industry’sprofessional associations and their media.

5Content comments

(Video) 6. LECTURE: Integrated Marketing Communications (linking Advertising with Promotional Strategies)

Very much focus in the book is on advertising agencies as the economic andorganizational entities that in most cases (apart from in-house advertising) dothe actual work. In my understanding, this is a very sensible approach, since itis very useful to know what is going on in the agencies, how they work and howthey think. As a prospect advertising manager and buyer, it may be good to knowthat they can be “award hungry” (p. 119), and they are apparently socreative that they need to be “disciplined” (p. 88, p.119, p. 121).This interesting choice of words possibly discloses the author’s point thatcompanies who want to brand and sell their products and advertising agencies donot necessarily have complete identical agendas. Actually, you might even saythat the book’s general two-fold perspective on managerial aspects on theone hand and socio-cultural aspects on the other hand represent the differenttheoretical and scientific approaches of the two corporate entities involved inthe advertising process: the companies with their managerial understanding ofadvertising and the advertising agencies with their more cultural approach toadvertising as a social and cultural practice.

It is not explicitly made clear by the author, though, what careers he has inmind for the readers: Are they going to be marketing and advertising people inthe companies, or are they going to be account managers, account planners, orcopywriters? In any case, the career paths of the readers would rather beadvertising managers, because there are hardly any descriptions of texts andtextual structures.

What left me wondering was that the case of a campaign for de Beers GemDiamonds’ was presented as one “interesting example of a standardizedcampaign” (Box 7.4, p. 205), when in fact the descriptions featuredclear-cut examples of an adapted campaign:

The theme was adapted into the differing diamond-giving practices indifferent countries (…) The campaign (…) used the same cinematictechnique in all the ads with local variations of music, copy and narrative, anda local voiceover. Each ad was made to be culturally relevant to a wide butconnected geographic region (p. 205).

Here, the author could have chosen an example that more unambiguouslyillustrative a standardized campaign. It is the more surprising that the authorchose that example because he quite rightly acknowledges that choosing between astandardized and a localized marketing strategy “is not a choice betweenalternatives but a question of degree” (pp. 203-204).

A general theme seems to be the uncertainty if advertising actually has aneffect on sales figures and revenue. The author states that “the causallink between the advertisement and the sale can never be proven definitively”(p. 43) because “the relationship between advertising and sales is subjectto many uncontrollable intervening variables in the consumer/market environment.”(p. 125). On several other occasions, the author makes that statement (p. 13-14,p. 19-20, p. 33, p. 80, p. 152, p. 241). On the one hand, that point makes thesections dealing with the research and measurement of campaign effectivenesslook a bit weak, but on the other hand, it is highly appreciable that the authorpoints out the difficulties in establishing a bullet-proof causal relationbetween advertising and sales figures.

One of the many strengths of the book, in my opinion, is that the authoroften refers to what might seem obvious to readers who are familiar with thissubject, but what nevertheless is extremely important to point out to thestudent readership. For example, it can never be told enough times that thetransmission model of communication does not at all reflect very well whathappens when communication is going on. Also, I find it very necessary to writeexplicitly that: “all advertising communicates exactly the same message.It tries to persuade us to buy stuff” (p. 194, see also p. 221). Similarly,what much too often is completely left out in other textbooks is the fact that“agencies regard advertising as the answer to every marketing problem”,whereas “the agency commissioned should concede that advertising may notbe the answer to the client’s problem”. This is a claim also putforward by other scholars (e.g. Backer et al., 1992, p. 3; Windahl etal., 1992, pp. 30-31). And additionally, quite refreshingly the authordescribes the phenomenon of product placement, where brand owners pay producersof TV and cinema entertainment to integrate their brand into the narratives ofthe TV show or the movie, as a negotiated deal which sometimes, and sometimesnot, is the reason why a certain brand appears in a TV show or a movie: “Manybrands seen on TV are there coincidentally an not as contracted deals” (p.174, see also p. 170). So even though some of those and similar statements mightbe seen as truisms, they are ever so important and legitimate to include in thebook.


All in all, the book is a very insightful guide to the world of advertising.It particularly devotes much attention to the actual production units ofadvertising: the advertising agencies. Combined with well-reflected and criticaldescriptions and discussions of the role of brands, companies, and media behindadvertising, this approach provides the reader with an excellent understandingof the mechanisms of advertising and promotion as part of Integrated MarketingCommunications.

In that regard, the book offers an additional important aspect to advertisingin IMC. Belch and Belch (2004), Duncan (2005) and Wells et al. (2005),offer that aspect, too, but not so consistently as Hackley (2010), and dePelsmacker et al. (2007) have chosen only to mention advertisingagencies on rare occasions (de Pelsmacker et al., 2007, p. 7 and p.30). So although those books might be more comprehensive, Hackley (2010)definitely has his legitimacy in the landscape of advertising textbooks.

(Video) Integrated Marketing Communication: Advertising & Promotion in a Digital World

Martin Nielsen


Backer, T.E., Rogers, E.V. and Sopory, P. (Eds.) (1992), Designing HealthCommunication Campaigns: What Works?, Sage, London

Belch, G.E. andBelch, M.A. (2004), Advertising and Promotion. An Integrated MarketingCommunications Perspective, 6th ed. , McGraw Hill, New York, NY

Burrack, H. and Nöcker, R. (2008), Vom Pitch zum Award. Wie Werbunggemacht wird. Insights in eine ungewöhnliche Branche, FrankfurterAllgemeine Buch, Frankfurt a.M

de Pelsmacker, P., Geuens, M. and van denBergh, J. (2007), Marketing Communications: A European Perspective, 3rded. , Financial Times/Prentice Hall, London

Duncan, T. (2005), Principlesof Advertising & IMC, 2nd ed. , McGraw Hill, New York, NY

Hackley,C. (2005), Advertising and Promotion. Communicating Brands, Sage,London

Hackley, C. (2010), Advertising and Promotion. An IntegratedMarketing Communications Approach, 2nd ed. , Sage, London

Levitt, T.(1983), “The globalization of markets”, Harvard Business Review,Vol. 37, July, pp. 117–24

(Video) Integrated Marketing Communication Advertising and Promotion in a Digital World, 2nd Edition

Sissors, J.C. and Baron, R.B. (2005), AdvertisingMedia Planning, 6th ed. , McGraw Hill, New York, NY

Wells, W.,Moriarty, S. and Burnett, J. (2005), Advertising. Principles and Practice,7th ed. , Pearson/Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

Windahl, S.,Signitzer, B. and Olson, J.T. (1992), Using Communication Theory. AnIntroduction to Planned Communication, Sage, London


What is advertising in integrated marketing communication? ›

Advertising. involves paying to disseminate a message that identifies a brand (product or service) or an organization being promoted to many people at one time. The typical media that organizations utilize for advertising of course include television, magazines, newspapers, the Internet, direct mail, and radio.

What is integrated communication approach? ›

What is integrated communication? An integrated communication strategy is the connective tissue that ensures brand consistency across all channels and aligns communication with business objectives. It considers who the target audiences are and how and where to communicate to engage them and move the business forward.

What is integrated approach in marketing? ›

Integrated marketing is a strategy for delivering a unified message across all the marketing channels your brand uses. It provides consistency wherever customers choose to interact with a company. Without an integrated marketing strategy, you risk delivering mixed messages or communicating in a disconnected voice.

What are the 5 integration marketing communication? ›

As we've mentioned previously, Integrated Marketing communications can be used harmoniously with five primary communication tools. These are advertising, direct marketing, internet marketing, sales promotion and public relations.

What are the four types of integrated marketing communication? ›

There are four basic types of integrated marketing communication: external, internal, horizontal and vertical. By taking these different elements together to form a marketing strategy, your business will be able to achieve whatever goals you've set for it in an efficient manner.

What is an example of integrated marketing communications? ›

Another great example of an integrated marketing campaign is Coke's 'share a coke with' campaign, which used unified messaging across TV, Social, Outdoor and Display leading to a 7% uplift in Coke consumption by the target demographic, making it one of the most successful Coke campaigns in history.

What is the main goal of integrated marketing communication? ›

The goal of integrated marketing communications is to ensure that customers receive the same message when they interact with a company's brand in various ways.

What is the importance of integrated marketing communications? ›

Having an awareness of integrated marketing communications allows a company to create a multi-pronged marketing campaign that targets wider audiences. A master's in integrated marketing communications teaches students how to determine the right channels that will target the right audience with the right messaging.

How is integrated marketing communication used? ›

Integrated marketing communications is an approach to promoting a message through multiple strategies that work together and reinforce one another. For example, a company may promote a new logo, slogan, or strategy through multiple media such as print, television, web, and social networks.

What are some examples of market integration? ›

Examples of market integration are the establishment of wholesaling facilities by food retailers and the setting up of another plant by a milk processor. In each case, there is a concentration of decision making in the hands of a single management.

What is the difference between IMC and advertising? ›

Advertising: The activity or profession of producing information for promoting the sale of commercial products or services. Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC): A synergistic approach to achieving the objectives of a marketing campaign, through a well-coordinated use of different promotional methods.

What are some examples of advertising? ›

Print Advertising: Newspaper, magazines, & brochure advertisements, etc. Broadcast Advertising: Television and radio advertisements. Outdoor Advertising: Hoardings, banners, flags, wraps, etc. Digital Advertising: Advertisements displayed over the internet and digital devices.

What are the five major promotion tools for marketing? ›

The marketing promotion mix has five major tools/ elements – Advertising, sales promotion, publicity, personal selling, and direct marketing.

What is the basic role of promotion? ›

The aim of promotion is to increase brand awareness, create interest, generate sales or create brand loyalty. It is one of the basic elements of the market mix, which includes the four Ps, i.e., product, price, place, and promotion. Promotion is also one of the elements in the promotional mix or promotional plan.

What are the 8 elements of marketing communication? ›

The eight elements of marketing communication. Advertising, sales promotion, events and experiences (sponsorship), public relations and publicity, direct marketing, interactive marketing, word-of-mouth marketing, and personal selling are what make up the eight tools of marketing communication.

What is integrated marketing communication and its tools? ›

Integrated Marketing Communication tools refer to integrating various marketing tools such as advertising, online marketing, public relation activities, direct marketing, sales campaigns to promote brands so that similar message reaches a wider audience.

What makes a good integrated marketing campaign? ›

Integrated marketing campaigns can help increase brand awareness, generate leads, and delight your customers. The best integrated marketing campaigns have an omnichannel approach, encourage audience engagement, and hopefully improve your brand reputation.

What are three elements of the integrated marketing communication strategy? ›

There are three elements in any integrated marketing communication strategy: the consumer being targeted, the channels through which the message is communicated, and evaluation of the results of the communication.

How do you develop an integrated marketing plan? ›

How to Build an Integrated Marketing Campaign
  1. Establish your overarching campaign goal.
  2. Choose your marketing channels and set goals for each one.
  3. Define your buyer personas by channel.
  4. Identify your channel managers.
  5. Create adaptable marketing assets and messaging.
  6. Establish your plan for collecting leads.
24 Mar 2021

How do you develop an effective marketing communication strategy? ›

Plan Your Marketing Communications Strategy in Six Simple Steps
  1. Identify Your Target Market. ...
  2. Identify Your Target Customers. ...
  3. Identify Your Unique Selling Proposition. ...
  4. Match Your Audience Problems to Your Product Solutions. ...
  5. Set Your Goals and Identify a Way to Measure Them.
10 Jun 2020

How would you use integrated marketing communications to build a strong brand? ›

Marketing communications can contribute to brand equity in a number of different ways: by creating awareness of the brand; linking points-of-parity and points-of-difference associations to the brand in consumers' memory; eliciting positive brand judgments or feelings; and facilitating a stronger consumer–brand ...

What are the 3 types of market integration? ›

Types of market integration
  • Horizontal integration. This occurs when a firm or agency gains control of other firms or agencies performing similar marketing functions at the same level in the marketing sequence. ...
  • Vertical integration. ...
  • Conglomeration.
20 Jun 2012

What are the reasons for market integration? ›

Reasons for market integration
  • To remove transaction costs.
  • Foster competition.
  • Provide better signals for optimal generation and consumption decisions.
  • Improve security of supply.
20 Jun 2012

What are the different advertising appeals? ›

The seven major types of advertising appeals include musical, sexual, humor, fear, emotional, rational, and scarcity, which all have the common goal of influencing the way consumers view themselves and the benefits of the products or services being advertised.

What are the limitations of advertising? ›

B. Disadvantages of Advertising – 1. Adds to the Cost of Production and Product 2.
Disadvantages of Advertising:
  • Adds to the Cost of Production and Product: ...
  • Leads to Price War: ...
  • Deceptive Advertising: ...
  • Leads to Unequal Competition: ...
  • Creates a Monopolistic Market: ...
  • Promotes Unnecessary Consumption: ...
  • Decline in Moral Values:

How does IMC differ from traditional advertising and promotion? ›

The aim of marketing is to create awareness of a brand and generate sales. IMC, on the other hand, aims to integrate the various promotional tools and approaches used by a company to ensure that consistent messages are delivered that creates a more powerful impact on the minds of the consumers.

What is advertisement effectiveness? ›

the degree to which the objectives of an advertisement or advertising campaign have been achieved; the effectiveness is commonly gauged by measuring the effect on sales, brand awareness, brand preference, etc. See: Communication Effect of Advertising Sales Effect of Advertising.

What makes an effective advertising campaign? ›

It has the desired qualities of strong credibility, high audience attention levels, and friendly audience reception. It features open-ended conversation with questions and answers about the product, psychological incentives to purchase, memorability, efficiency and frequency.

What are two types of advertising media? ›

Nine types of advertising media available to an advertiser are: (1) direct mail (2) newspapers and magazines (3) radio advertising (4) television advertising (5) film advertising (6) outdoor advertising (7) window display (8) fairs and exhibition and (9) specially advertising!

What are the benefits of advertising? ›

Benefits of advertising
  • increase customer reach.
  • build customer awareness of your business and brand.
  • promote the benefits of your products or services.
  • communicate information about your business.
  • increase sales and demand.
  • gain an advantage over your competitors.
6 Aug 2021

Why is advertising so important? ›

Advertising is important because it can drive business growth. Advertising works to amplify your small business marketing efforts and helps you reach the right audience with positive, targeted messaging that converts potential customers into paying customers.

What are the functions of advertising? ›

The five functions of advertising are informing, influencing, increasing salience, adding value, and other efforts. Companies inform by presenting data about their organizations and products. They Influence by convincing consumers to buy certain products or services over others.

Why is IMC important for marketers? ›

Having an awareness of integrated marketing communications allows a company to create a multi-pronged marketing campaign that targets wider audiences. A master's in integrated marketing communications teaches students how to determine the right channels that will target the right audience with the right messaging.

How promotion is different from communication and integrated marketing communication? ›

The key difference between IMC and promotional mix is that IMC refers to conveying a brand message to its targeted audience to lure customers for purchases whereas promotional mix refers to the integration of advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations and direct marketing to lure target audience ...

How effective is integrated marketing communications? ›

Integrated marketing communications are effective

Uniformity in your image increases trust and awareness. For instance, a Gartner research survey found that lead management campaigns that integrated four or more channels outperform single-channel campaigns by around 300%.

What are three roles of marketing promotion? ›

It helps marketers to create a distinctive place in customers' mind, it can be either a cognitive or emotional route. The aim of promotion is to increase brand awareness, create interest, generate sales or create brand loyalty.

What are the four key objectives of marketing communications? ›

The top four communication objectives that are most frequently used by the analyzed brands are: brand awareness, brand salience, detailed information, and emotional branding.


1. What is Integrated Marketing?
2. What Is A Promotional Mix And Integrated Marketing Communications
(Corey Nelson)
3. Integrated Marketing Communication Promotion Types
(Dr. Kristy Grayson)
4. Marketing Communications - Advertising and Promotions
5. Integrated Marketing Campaigns - An introduction
(Tine Wade)
6. Integrated Marketing Communications and the Marketing Mix
(Dr. Kristy Grayson)

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